Fire Alarm System and Detectors

A fire alarm system consists of various electronic devices that work together to detect and notify people of a fire or other emergency. Over the years, fire alarm systems have become increasingly sophisticated. A fire alarm system consists of many components, including:

Fire alarm control panel

Initiation devices

Pull stations

Smoke detectors

Heat detectors

Beam detectors

Air aspirating or air sampling smoke detectors

Linear Heat Detectors

Audible devices

Strobes

Strobes/Horns

 

Fire Alarm Control Panel

Fire alarm control panels perform a wide range of life-saving and property-protecting tasks. Some activate fire suppression or fire sprinkler systems, while others don’t. Some transmit a signal used to alert first responders, while others simply sound alarms in or around the building. Every fire panel acts as a middleman between devices that watch for hazards and devices tasked with alerting people to danger or problems with fire protection systems.

These fire alarm control units are, like fire alarm systems, often classified in the fire protection industry as either “conventional” or “addressable.”

Conventional Fire Alarm Control Panel

Conventional panels represent a building as a series of regions known as detection zones. When a smoke detector or pull switch in a zone activates, the electrical current to the fire alarm panel changes, and the control panel indicates that a device somewhere in that zone has been activated.

Addressable Fire Alarm Control Panel

Devices connected to an addressable panel send data to the panel – rather than notifying via a change in electrical current – and display which specific device has activated. Each device has a unique “address” in the system, hence the name “addressable” panel. That additional level of detail allows personnel and first responders to more quickly identify exactly where the fire is and take appropriate action.

Fire Fighting Control Panel

Fire de­tec­tion and ex­tin­guish­ing con­trol pan­els pro­cess res­ults de­tec­ted by sensors, con­trol alarm devices and set off alarms to per­man­ently manned sta­tions and the fire de­part­ment. They con­tinu­ously mon­itor ex­tin­guish­ing sys­tems for func­tion­al­ity and trig­ger them elec­tric­ally if ne­ces­sary. In ad­di­tion, they com­mu­nic­ate with risk man­age­ment sys­tems or via web in­ter­face with In­ter­net-en­abled devices. Dif­fer­ent model ver­sions, from a com­pact small panel to soph­ist­ic­ated large con­trol pan­els make it pos­sible to se­lect the ap­pro­pri­ate fire de­tec­tion and ex­tin­guish­ing con­trol panel.

Fire Alarm Devices

Comprehensive intelligent (Analogue Addressable range), Conventional or wireless are suitable for even the most demanding environments and incorporates high performance sensors, a wide selection of input and output modules and ancillaries.

Spot Smoke Detector

These systems use devices that respond to the smoke particles produced by a fire.  Spot-type smoke detectors use the photoelectric principle of operation.  These systems are intended for early warning of a fire (very early warning). Some are designed for installation in ventilation ducts. (See NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code.) Properly installed, smoke detectors can detect smoke particles in early stages of fire in the areas where they are located. The selection of a particular detector or mixture of detectors should be made by a fire protection specialist and based on building and fire-load conditions.

The ionization principle of spot smoke detection was popular in the past but because of the challenge in sourcing radioactive material used in these detectors manufacturers have opted to discontinue their manufacture in favor of enhanced-performance photoelectric detectors.

Photoelectric Light-Scattering Spot Smoke Detection:  The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered by reflection and refraction onto the sensor. The light signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria.

Spot Heat Detector

Spot Heat Detectors are mounted on exposed ceiling surfaces or on a sidewall near the ceiling. Heat detectors are designed to respond when the operating element reaches a predetermined temperature (fixed temperature detector), when the temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined value (rate-of-rise detector), or when the temperature of the air surrounding the device reaches a predetermined level, regardless of the rate of temperature rise (rate compensation detector). Some devices incorporate both fixed temperature and rate-of-rise detection principles. Spot-type detectors are usually small devices a few inches in diameter.

Early Warning Smoke Detector

Aspirating smoke detection solutions with continuous air sampling provide the earliest possible warning of an impending fire hazard. Aspirating smoke detectors buy the critical time needed to investigate an alarm and initiate an appropriate response to prevent injury, property damage, or business disruption.

Beam Smoke Detector

Beam Detectors are used to provide “open area” smoke detection in situations where it is either impractical or not cost effective to use traditional point-type detectors or aspirating smoke detection. Some common applications are: Warehouses; Atriums; Convention Centers; shopping malls; Sports Arenas. The type of Beam Smoke Detector used will be dictated by the installation requirements and environment.​There are two types of beam detectors: Receiver-transmitter type and reflector type.

Linear Heat Detector

Linear Heat Detection (LHD) uses a wire or cable instead of a thermostat to detect heat from fire. There are many customizable options when it comes to installation, making it a versatile and effective means of heat detection in many applications.

Linear Heat Detection (LHD) is a continuous heat detector designed to detect heat along the length of a sensor cable. This sensor cable is made up of two conductors, both insulated by heat sensitive polymers.

The heat sensitive polymer is protected by an outer jacket. Beneath this jacket and heat sensitive polymer coating is a pair of steel conductors. When the ambient temperature meets or exceeds the detector’s fixed temperature, the polymer melts. As it melts, the steel conductors make contact and initiate an electrical short that then sends a signal to the fire alarm panel of an alarm condition.

Manual Call Point

manual call points are typically installed at various fire escape route locations throughout a premises. Featuring bright red housing for ease of identification, the manual call point allows for occupants to manually activate the fire alarm system in the event of an emergency. Conventional manual call points are available with either a replaceable glass window or with a flexible plastic element that can be reset after each use.

Siren and Beacons

Fire alarm sounders and beacons provide an audible and visual warning in the event of a fire, ensuring that everyone on the premises is alerted to the potential danger

Special Tools

Special tools for test and calibration of detectors will be provided based on customer request for pre-commissioning and commissioning

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